Wednesday, November 21, 2007

Gravity Theories, Theories on how gravity actually works

The Universal Theory of Gravity is often taught in schools as a “fact,” when in fact it is not even a good theory.

First of all, no one has measured gravity for every atom and every star. It is simply a religious belief that it is “universal.” Secondly, school textbooks routinely make false statements. For example, “the moon goes around the earth.” If the theory of gravity were true, it would show that the sun's gravitational force on the moon is much stronger than the earth's gravitational force on the moon, so the moon would go around the sun. Anybody can look up at night and see the obvious gaps in gravity theory.

The existence of tides is often taken as a proof of gravity, but this is logically flawed. Because if the moon's “gravity” were responsible for a bulge underneath it, then how can anyone explain a high tide on the opposite side of the earth at the same time? Anyone can observe that there are 2 -- not 1 -- high tides every day.

There are numerous other flaws. For example, astronomers, who seem to have a fetish for gravity, tell us that the moon rotates on its axis but at the same time it always presents the same face to the earth. This is patently absurd. Moreover, if gravity were working on the early earth, then earth would have been bombarded out of existence by falling asteroids, meteors, comets, and other space junk. Furthermore, gravity theory suggests that the planets have been moving in orderly orbits for millions and millions of years, which wholly contradicts the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Since everything in the Universe tends to disorder according to the 2nd Law, orderly orbits are impossible. This cannot be resolved by pointing to the huge outpouring of energy from the sun. In fact, it is known that the flux of photons from the sun and the “solar wind” actually tends to push earth away.

There are numerous alternative theories that should be taught on an equal basis. For example, the observed behavior of the earth revolving around the sun can be perfectly explained if the sun has a net positive charge and the planets have a net negative charge, since opposite charges attract and the force is an inverse-square law, exactly as the increasingly discredited Theory of Gravity. Physics and chemistry texts emphasize that this is the explanation for electrons going around the nucleus, so if it works for atoms, why not for the solar system? The answer is simple: scientific orthodoxy.

The US Patent Office has never issued a patent for anti-gravity. Why is this? According to natural law and homeopathy, everything exists in opposites: good-evil; grace-sin; positive charges-negative charges; north poles-south poles; good vibes-bad vibes; etc. We know there are anti-evolutionists, so why not anti-gravitationalists? It is clearly a matter of the scientific establishment elite protecting their own. Anti-gravity papers are routinely rejected from peer-reviewed journals, and scientists who propose anti-gravity quickly lose their funding. Universal gravity theory is just a way to keep the grant money flowing.

Even Isaac Newton, said to be the discoverer of gravity, knew there were problems with the theory. He claims to have invented the idea early in his life, but he knew that no mathematician of his day would approve his theory, so he invented a whole new branch of mathematics, called fluxions, just to “prove” his theory. This became calculus, a deeply flawed branch having to do with so-called “infinitesimals” which have never been observed. Then when Einstein invented a new theory of gravity, he, too, used an obscure bit of mathematics called tensors. It seems that every time there is a theory of gravity, it is mixed up with “fringe” mathematics. Newton, by the way, was far from a secular scientist, and the bulk of his writings is actually on theology and Christianity. His dabbling in gravity, alchemy, and calculus was a mere sideline, perhaps an aberration best left forgotten in describing his career and faith in a Creator.

Gravity theory by David W. Allen

One of the biggest questions that has puzzled mankind throughout the ages is how gravity works. This new gravitational theory not only explains how gravity works, but shows how errors can arise in determining the positions of space probes, in determining the mass of the earth and other planets and in determining the value of G, the universal gravitational constant. This new theory of gravity is part of a more general Unified Field Theory (UFT) that shows how all of the known force fields work together. Once understood, this new UFT explains several heretofore unexplained phenomena in nature. In this brief write up, we will only deal with the gravitational part of the UFT.

John Anderson and colleagues of NASA JPL, experts in the determination of spacecraft positioning, have published discrepancies observed in the locations of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 and of the Ulysses solar probe. (Anderson, 1998, Katz, 1999, Murphy, 1999) To date these discrepancies have not been fully explained. Anderson has raised the question as to whether there is a fundamental problem in our understanding of gravity or in the timing provided by the atomic clocks as part of the Deep Space Network (DSN), which tracks the space probes. The space vehicles exhibit a pull toward the sun greater than current theory would predict by about 2e-8 cm/s2.

The general model now being used to describe the gravitational field proposes that gravitational waves run transverse to the direction of propagation of the gravitational energy. As predicted by Einstein, gravitational energy would travel at the velocity of light. To date, no experiments have been able to directly measure gravitational waves or even detect them, but from the interaction of the gravitational forces between a binary pulsar pair, Professor Joseph Taylor (Princeton U.) was able to deduce Einstein's prediction that the gravitational energy travels at the velocity of light. (Taylor, 1994--Nobel prize 1993)

Currently, many hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent , and hundreds of millions are now being sought, by an international university and investigative consortium in order to continue their research into gravity waves and to unravel the mysteries of gravity. It is our hope and belief that our work will bring further enlightenment to this challenge and provide the necessary, but different, perspective needed to understand gravity. The most significant aspect of this new theory is the discovery of diallel, gravitational-field lines. These diallel lines open up a whole new paradigm and help to explain several, heretofore, unexplainable problems in physics. With a new perspective we need some new physics. Papers are in preparation for publication to explain some of this new physics, and some information is available on our web site []

In this new theory, two things are required for gravity to work. First, two bodies of some energy density to interact with each other, and second, connecting diallel lines which provide not only particle flow between the bodies, but also the flow of photon and gravitational information as well.

In chemistry and molecular spectroscopy we take for granted the seven electron shells that describe the energy states of electrons in their various atomic and molecular configurations. These seven shells along with the number of protons, neutrons and electrons give us all of our elements and isotopes of which we are aware. As these seven shells include all the electrons’ configurations around an atom or molecule, similarly, there are seven channels or states of conductivity for the diallel lines included in the new theory of gravity and in the UFT. These diallel lines are made of the same matter, and can serve as a conduit for any and all of the fundamental particles, as well as for photons.

The diallel lines are the conduits for the gravity information as well — bringing about the interaction between the two bodies. Just as a magnetic field requires no particles to make the field, so there is no graviton required to make a gravity field. In the same way that a moving charge sets up a condition for the generation of a magnetic field, a certain set of conditions will generate a gravitational field. The minimum conditions require two bodies, each with some level of energy density, together with a flow of charged particles along the diallel lines connecting these two bodies. The moving charges and particles in the diallel lines set up the necessary condition for the gravitational information to flow between the two bodies providing the gravitational interaction. The velocity of the gravitational information is a function of the conditions – typically at or faster than the velocity of light.

The frequency of this gravitational information is located in a band just above that of the cosmic rays that are associated with particle annihilation and generation. Like light, the velocity of gravity information is dependent on local circumstances. In the same manner that photons are associated with quantum transitions and all particles exist (interactively) in quantum states, the diallel lines have quantum states in which both particles and gravitational information travel. As particles and photons can be absorbed, refracted, or reflected, so can diallel lines when given the right local circumstances. A classic illustration of the refraction or bending of these diallel lines was determined by a team from the University of Alaska, who observed the bending of electron flow above extremely energetic thunderstorm activities. As will be seen below, the equations of state describing the fields for diallel lines contain the possibility for sign reversal, i.e. anti gravity or gravitational shielding.

Some additional perspectives are useful to appreciate aspects of the new physics needed for this new theory. We have long established in quantum physics the dual nature of matter: a particle can behave like a wave. Similarly, a photon, which is basically an electromagnetic bundle of energy oscillating at a particular frequency, can also behave as a particle. The electromagnetic field associated with a photon has no charge, and its energy is proportional to its frequency. The gravitational information cannot be considered as a particle or a bundle of energy per se. Operating above the cosmic frequency band, this gravitational information is communicated in a way not heretofore appreciated. We cannot write E = hv to describe its energy, and we need a new set of equations associated with this flow of information.

In summary then, the conditions needed for the gravitational field are two objects with some energy density (not just mass) and with diallel lines running between these two energy-density objects, which diallel lines are conducting particles, i.e. electrons, protons, neutrons, etc. These diallel lines then provide a conduit for the gravitational band of frequencies to communicate and generate a gravitational interaction between the two objects. Much like our circulatory and respiratory systems breath and pulse to sustain life, so these diallel lines are the communication channels to provide (pulse and breath in analogy) a balance, harmony and the function of nature.

The traditional gravitational equation is:

The product of the masses is divided by the distance between theme squared, and "G" is the well known constant of proportionality — the universal gravitational constant. According to this equation. The acceleration of gravity that we feel on the earth is given by Gm1/r122 (= 9.8 m/s2 nominally at the surface of the earth) if m1 is the mass of the earth and m2 is mass of the person feeling the acceleration. What we feel when standing is nominally this force since we are constrained to walk about on the earth. If the material surface of the earth were not constraining us, we would then free-fall, accelerating toward the center of mass of the earth.

Given the new theory, the attraction is a function of the energy-density, which, of course, includes the mass. The above traditional equation is a subset of the new. The new equation for gravitational force replaces the masses by the integral over the density and is as follows:

It is fascinating that at C.U. where they have created new matter called Bose-Einstein condensate, the velocity of light in this condensate can be almost as slow as the velocity of sound. It would be instructive to perform diallel line experiments in conjunction with B-E condensate matter. This high-density material could lead to some interesting validations of this new UFT due to the higher energy densities present.

The work of Dr. Ning Li at the University of Alabama at Huntsville is particularly fascinating also, as she is doing high frequency work with super conductors and investigating the quantum states associated with the gravity fields. She has not yet published her full theory, and her work appears to be among the most promising. (See references below)

As the electrons travel along diallel lines, they spin clockwise in a variety of quantum states. Anti-gravity comes as a result of spinning the electrons in the opposite direction. This is like and in conjunction with the creation of anti-matter. By so doing, one gets a negative sign from the A2 term in the above equation, for example, creating an upward rather than a downward force. This is somewhat analogous to a magnetic field being used to suspend objects.